Non-trivial Landmark Recommendation using Geotagged Photos

TitleNon-trivial Landmark Recommendation using Geotagged Photos
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsShi, Y, Serdyukov, P, Hanjalic, A, Larson, MA
Refereed DesignationRefereed
JournalACM Transactions on Intelligent Systems and Technology

Online photo-sharing sites provide a wealth of information about user behavior and their potential is increasing as it becomes ever-more common for images to be associated with location information in the form of geotags. In this article, we propose a novel approach that exploits geotagged images from an online community for the purpose of personalized landmark recommendation. Under our formulation of the task, recommended landmarks should be relevant to user interests and additionally they should constitute nontrivial recommendations. In other words, recommendations of landmarks that are highly popular and frequently visited and can be easily discovered through other information sources such as travel guides should be avoided in favor of recommendations that relate to users' personal interests. We propose a collaborative filtering approach to the personalized landmark recommendation task within a matrix factorization framework. Our approach, WMF-CR, combines weighted matrix factorization and category-based regularization. The integrated weights emphasize the contribution of nontrivial landmarks in order to focus the recommendation model specifically on the generation of nontrivial recommendations. They support the judicious elimination of trivial landmarks from consideration without also discarding information valuable for recommendation. Category-based regularization addresses the sparse data problem, which is arguably even greater in the case of our landmark recommendation task than in other recommendation scenarios due to the limited amount of travel experience recorded in the online image set of any given user. We use category information extracted from Wikipedia in order to provide the system with a method to generalize the semantics of landmarks and allow the model to relate them not only on the basis of identity, but also on the basis of topical commonality. The proposed approach is computational scalable, that is, its complexity is linear with the number of observed preferences in the user-landmark preference matrix and the number of nonzero similarities in the category-based landmark similarity matrix. We evaluate the approach on a large collection of geotagged photos gathered from Flickr. Our experimental results demonstrate that WMF-CR outperforms several state-of-the-art baseline approaches in recommending nontrivial landmarks. Additionally, they demonstrate that the approach is well suited for addressing data sparseness and provides particular performance improvement in the case of users who have limited travel experience, that is, have visited only few cities or few landmarks.